Scientific Articles

Bone Grafting Articles


Comparison of anterior and posterior iliac crest bone grafts in terms of harvest-site morbidity and functional outcomes

Previous studies indicate a high complication rate when harvesting bone graft from the iliac crest. This study demonstrated lower complications when harvesting posteriorly. Major/minor complications in this study were 8%/15% anterior and 2%/0% posterior.

Ahlmann E, Patzakis M, Roidis N, et al.  J Bone Joint Surg Am 2002;84:716-20  | Download the PDF.

Autogenous iliac crest bone graft: complications and functional assessment

Iliac crest bone grafting were evaluated to assess the effect of bone grafts on patient function.

Goulet J, Senunas L, DeSilva G, et al. Clin Orthop Relat Res1997;339:76-81 | Download the PDF

Natural history of posterior iliac crest bone graft donation for spinal surgery: a prospective analysis of morbidity

A study was performed to evaluate bone graft donor site morbidity in patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery. Donor site pain is the major component of morbidity. The highest pain scores in this study were reported at 6 months post surgery.

Robertson P, Wray A. Spine 2001; 26(13):1473-6 | Download the PDF

Prospective evaluation of chronic pain associated with posterior autologous iliac crest bone graft harvest and its effect on postoperative outcome

Iliac crest bone graft is the gold standard for spinal fusion, but complications include chronic pain, numbness and poor cosmesis at the graft harvest site. This study looked at 170 patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery. Chronic harvest site pain and discomfort was reported in a significant percentage of patients more than 3 years post surgery.

Schwartz C, Martha J, Kowalski P, et al. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2009:7:49 | Download the PDF

Harvesting of cancellous bone from the proximal tibia under local anesthesia: donor site morbidity and patient experience

Autologous cancellous bone graft is frequently used in maxillofacial surgery. A study was conducted of patients who had bone graft removed from the proximal tibia under local anesthetic for use in the maxillofacial reconstruction.

Kirmeier R, Payer M, Lorenzoni M, et al. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2007;65(11):2235-41 | Download the PDF.

 Stem cells in bone grafting: Trinity allograft with stem cells and collagen/bet tricalcium phosphate with concentrated bone marrow aspirate

Bone grafting is needed for fracture healing and fusion of the foot and ankle. Allograft bone combined with concentrated bone marrow aspirate is an alternative to harvesting autologous bone graft.

Guyton G, Miller S. Foot Ankle Clin N Am 15(2010)611-619. | Download the PDF

Bone regeneration and repair

Understanding the biological events and biomechanical aspects of autografts and allografts is important un understanding the process that influence the incorporation of bone graft into the host skeleton or defect. 

Goldberg V, Akhavan S. Biology of bone grafts. In: Lieberman J, Friedleander G, eds. Totawa: Humana Press; 2005:57–65. (Book Chapter) | Download the PDF


Stem Cell Articles

Mesenchymal stem cells

The mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is the progenitor cell for skeletal tissues including cartilage, bone, tendon and ligaments. Understanding the role of MSCs in tissue repair/regeneration suggests the importance of these stem cells in future cell therapy treatments for a variety of diseases/conditions.

Caplan AI.  J Orthop Res 1991 9(5):641-650 | Download PDF.

What’s in a name? (Expert opinion) 

The strong therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for the treatment of a variety of diseases is discussed in this expert opinion.

Caplan AI. Tissue Engineering 2010 Part A 16:8 | Download the PDF.

The MSC: an injury drugstore

Recent evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) play a role in tissue repair/regeneration with a local response to injury through the secretion of bioactive molecules and the regulation of the local immune response.

Caplan, AI, Correa, D. Cell Stem Cell 2011, doi:10/1016 | Download the PDF.

MSCs as therapeutics

The osteoprogenitor cells found in bone marrow, called mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), have the capacity as pericytes to secrete bioactive molecules that influence disease conditions and tissue regeneration.

Caplan AI. In Hematti P, Keating A (eds) Mesenchymal stromal cells: biology and clinical applications. 2013 doi 10.1007/978-1-4614-5711-4_5, Springer New York. | Download the PDF.

Bone regeneration through cellular tissue engineering

Defining the parameters that govern natural regeneration of bone that lead to the engineering of new products.

Bruder SP, Caplan AI. In Lanza R, Langer R, Vacanti J (eds). Principles in tissue engineering 2nd edn, 2000, Springer, New York, 683-696 (Book chapter) | Download the PDF.

Mesenchymal stem cells in bone development, bone repair, and skeletal regeneration therapy

 The role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in adult fracture repair and remodeling is described. Understanding how MSCs work will help lead to new therapeutic directions in cell therapy.

Bruder SP, Fink DJ, Caplan AI. J Cell Biochem 1994 56(3):283-294 | Download the PDF.

Clinical use of marrow osteoprogenitor cells to stimulate osteogenesis

Marrow and stem cells offer healing advantages to some grafting needed procedures.

Connolly JF. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1998 355:S257-266 | Download the PDF.

A perivascular origin for mesenchymal stem cells in multiple human organs

Mesenchymal stem cells, the progenitor cells for skeletal tissues, are demonstrated to be pericytes and found throughout the body. This suggests that MSCs may have a role in various tissue regeneration and disease management that has not previously been understood. 

Crisan M, Yap S, Castteilla L, et al. Cell Stem Cell 2008:301-313  | Download the PDF.

Comparative analysis of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, or adipose tissue

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a promising tool for future cell therapy efforts. This study compares three sources of MSCs, bone marrow, adipose tissue(fat) and umbilical cord blood. 

Kern S, Eichler H, Stoeve J, et al. Stem Cells 2006 24(5): 1294-1301 | Download PDF.

Mechanisms involved in therapeutic properties of mesenchymal stem cells

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) secrete a broad range of bioactive molecules such as growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. Understanding this activity along with the properties of MSCs is the key to development of future therapeutic applications for these cells in the future.

Meirelles LD, Fontes AM, Covas DT, Caplan AI. Cytokine Growth Factor Res 2009 20(5-6):419-427 | Download PDF.

All MSCs are pericytes

Human perivascular cells are both pericytes and MSCs. These cells can be expanded and are multipotent in culture establish that these tissues are part of the pericyte family of cells.

Caplan AI. Cell Stem Cell 2008:229-230 | Download PDF.